Where does the heart of our country beat? Without a doubt - this is Red Square
. Area, every stone that is steeped in history. Here the history of Russia began, here for centuries tsars and patriarchs lived, it is here that the heart of every Russian person strives. Here is a zero verst and a reference point.
Trying to talk about Red Square is like embracing the vast. The Red Square is not so wide in breadth and lengthwise as in depth, the thickness of the cultural layer reaches five meters here.
Red Square dates back to the fifteenth century. Then, by order of Ivan the Third, the Kremlin was rebuilt and a release was ordered to clear the space near its walls. Wooden houses that were pressed against the walls of the Kremlin were demolished, and wooden churches were dismantled. The square was called the Great Bargain, and malls were built on it. The Kremlin itself was surrounded by a moat and filled the moat with water, combining the waters of the Moscow River and the Neglinka River. A massive drawbridge was thrown across the moat, and the moat itself was further strengthened with stone.
Moscow in those days was wooden and burned regularly. Very soon, new shopping malls burned out, clearing the area. The square stood for a long time in this form and received the nickname Fire. After a while, new shopping malls appeared here, this time built of stone. At the same time, the square received its current name. She was called Red. Perhaps this word denoted a beautiful or, most likely, the name of the square was given by running haberdashery goods, which were abundantly sold by merchants here.
In 1630, the construction of the grand Kazan Cathedral was completed. This building was dedicated to the expulsion of the Polish army from Moscow. Entrance to Red Square was through the Resurrection Gate. Nearby was the Mint and the stone pharmacy building with a turret. At the Nikolsky Gate there was a wooden theater building, which stood there until 1722.
On Red Square there were many wooden buildings, unfortunately, not survived to this day. So, to celebrate the victory near Poltava, the Triumphal Gate was installed, and the famous architect Rastrelli built a wooden theater.
In the eighteenth century, the square acquired great cultural significance. It was here that the first public library in Moscow arose; books were sold at the Spassky Gate. The university opened in the building of the former main pharmacy. At the beginning of the century, stone malls and shops were built. They rebuilt the Forefront and laid out the area with cobblestones.
In 1812, Moscow was surrendered by a Frenchman and pre-burned. On Red Square, all wooden buildings burned down, stone buildings were significantly damaged by fire. But the square, like Moscow, rose from the ashes. The ancient Alevizov moat fell asleep, which had long lost its strategic importance. At the place of the moat appeared a boulevard for walks, the shopping arcades were restored, rebuilt in the classicist style. A monument to Minin and Pozharsky was erected on the square, which stands here to this day.
The nineteenth century was marked by the construction of the Historical Museum, new shopping arcades; at the end of the century, the square was electrified and acquired a modern look.
The October Revolution took place, and the new government moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow, in connection with which the area acquired important strategic and ideological significance. Red Square has become a place of demonstration of the power and strength of the new state, a venue for parades, a demonstration of military equipment, and demonstrations of workers.
After the death of Lenin, the square acquired another object, without which it is now impossible to imagine.
The first Mausoleum was wooden; it was built near the wall. A stone modern mausoleum was built in 1930.
The mausoleum laid the foundation for numerous burials near the Kremlin wall. The first burial is the mass grave of the fallen Red Army soldiers. Subsequently, ballot boxes with the ashes of prominent figures of the Soviet state were walled up in the wall. Directly behind the Mausoleum are the graves of communist leaders. For a long time there have been disputes about the fate of the mausoleum and the necropolis, enthusiasts propose to free the area from burials, transferring them to the cemetery.
The famous paving stones appeared on the square in 1930. This is a valuable Onega diabase. Workers cleaned the old cobblestone, covered the square with sand, and rammed it with rubble. Paving stones were laid according to a specially designed pattern. The monument to Minin and Pozharsky was transferred from the center of the square to the St. Basil's Cathedral, since in the center of the square it interfered with parades. Fortunately, the temple was not demolished, for some reason Stalin ordered it to be left.
Historically, Vasilevskaya Square literally merged with Red Square, not many people understand that these are two separate squares. In 1974, paving stones were replaced, as the old paving stones were corrupted by heavy military equipment. Therefore, the new paving stones were laid on a concrete base. In the nineties, they restored the Kazan Cathedral and transferred it to the Russian Orthodox Church. The Iversky Gate was also restored.
Today Red Square is a favorite vacation spot for guests and residents of the capital, it is a symbol of the capital, the heart of the Motherland, the glorious history of Russia in stone.
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